Pomegranate antioxidants are mainly found in the pericarp (fruit peel), juice, and seeds. These compounds are mainly phenolic components with hydroxyl functional groups and double bonds, which include tannins, polyphenols, and flavonoids. Various studies have shown a strong direct link between antioxidant capacity and the ingredients of phenolic compounds, indicating that these compounds are the main and important antioxidants in pomegranate.
Ellagic acid and Punicalagin are the two main tannins found in pomegranate carp, which have the highest antioxidant activity among tannins. Ellagic acid, with its ability to form chelates with metal ions, can react with free radicals and have a strong anti-lipid peroxidation effect on mitochondria and microsomes. Punicalagin has a high ability to inhibit fat peroxidation due to its ability to provide electrons in the removal of free radicals, that comes from fat peroxidation.
The flavonoids in pomegranate peel extracts such as Catechin, Cyanidin, and Kaempferol also have a significant effect on the total antioxidant ability of pomegranate peel extract due to their effect on removing free radicals and their strong antioxidant activity.
Dietary patterns today are considered as an important and influential factor in the occurrence or prevention of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Numerous epidemiological studies have shown that regular consumption of foods and beverages rich in polyphenols (such as tannins and flavonoids) is effective in reducing the risk of various pathological problems such as high blood pressure, coronary heart disease, atherosclerosis, and stroke. Pomegranate is one of the plants that have a high and good content of polyphenols and has good effects on cardiovascular protection. In addition, by having antioxidant effects and protecting the walls of arteries from free radical damage and protecting all types of fats in the bloodstream from oxidation, it increases cardiovascular protection.